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Culture Terminology and Recommended Temperature

The ph acidification curve will vary with milk quality, milk type, fat, protein, temperature, amount of culture, enzymes or salt used.  Therefore, please contact your Cheese Connection consultant.

Mesophilic CulturesTemperatureComments
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (LL)

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (LC)
Growth range:  50° to 104°F (10° to 40°C).

Optimal range: 77° to 86°F (25° to 30°C)
At the higher temperature range these Mesophilic cultures will perish quicker; therefore, temperature control by recipe type is very important.
Lactococcus lactis subsp. biovar diacetylactis (LD)

Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris (LMC)
Growth range:  41° to 100°F (5° to 38°C).

Optimal range: 64° to 77°F (18° to 25°C)
These are CO2 (gas producing cultures); therefore, exact measurements are important.  Lactococcus lactis subsp. biovar diacetylactis produces lactic acid and CO2.  pH verification will also be important.

Thermophilic Cultures

Temperature

Comments

Streptococcus thermophilus (ST)

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (LB)

Lactobacillus Helveticus (LH)

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (LDL)

Lactobacillus casei (LC)

Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei
Growth range:  68° to 125°F (20° to 52°C).

These cultures optimal performance will vary for flavor, texture and growth.  Streptococcus thermophilus has a slow acidifying and fast acidifying blend as an example.


Additional Adjunct Cultures

Temperature

Comments

Probiotics

Propionicbacterium shermanii (PS) and Propionicbacterium freundii (PF)

Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR)

Lactobacillus planterum (LP)

Kefir
Growth range:  98° to 106°F (37° to 41°C).

Optimal range: 64° to 77°F (18° to 25°C).

Kefir Optimal range:  110° to 115°F (43° to 46°C).

These cultures optimal performance will vary for flavor, texture and growth. 

Cheese Type: Culture and Enzyme Pairings

For Commercial clients: We provide culture consulting and enzyme pairing at no cost.

Cheese TypeCulture and/or Enzyme PairingAdditional Adjunct Cultures
Brie, Cambozola, Camembert, Blue, Gorgonzola, Stilton, Bleu d’ Auvergne and RoquefortLactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (LL)

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (LC)

Lactococcus lactis subsp. biovar diacetylactis (LD)

Rennet:  Calf or Vegan.  Lamb rennet is exceptional in sheep milk blue cheese.
Camembert and Brie:  Penicillium candidum and/or geotrichum candidum.  For traditional French taste and aroma, liquid Hafnia Alvei.

Cambozola:  Penicillium Candidum and/or Geotrichum Candidum and Penicillium Roqueforti.

Blue Cheese:  Penicillium Roqueforti,  Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris (LMC).  Some blue cheese makers uses a liquid geotrichum to further breakdown the surface and texture of the cheese.  In Europe, some of the most notable blue cheese makers also use a yogurt culture for texturizing.
Butterkase, Limberger and MuensterLactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (LL)

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (LC)

Lactococcus lactis subsp. biovar diacetylactis (LD)

Streptococcus thermophilus (ST)

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (LB)

Lactobacillus lactis (LBL)

Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei (LBC)

Rennet:  Calf or Vegan
Butterkase:  An extra buttery, non-acidifying adjunct culture for aroma, flavor and texture.

Limberger:  Bacteria linens and/or annatto.

Muenster:  Bacteria linens for color or annatto.
Cheddar, Colby, Monterey Jack, Semi-hard cheese  and Cottage CheeseLactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (LL)

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (LC)

Rennet:  Calf or Vegan
For a firm texture Cheddar: Streptococcus Thermophilus (ST)/Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (LC) blend.  For a caramel aroma and taste, Carnobacterium (CB). Lactobacillus Helveticus for a nutty aroma and flavor (LH). Clients may also use calf lipase for additional lipolysis.

In some  semi-hard cheeses the use of Lactobacillus Planterum (LP) can suppress bitter peptides and enhance a fruity aroma.
Edam, Emmental, Swiss, Gouda and Alpine Mountain Style CheeseLactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (LL)

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (LC)

Lactococcus lactis subsp. biovar diacetylactis (LD)

Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris (LMC)

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (LB)

Lactobacillus lactis (LBL)

Streptococcus thermophilus (ST)

Propionic bacterium shermanii (PS) or Propionic bacterium freundii (PF)
Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris (LMC) is an important culture to assist with texture and hole opening for the Propionicbacterium shermanii (PS) or Propionicbacterium freundii (PF) to implant.
 
Some Swiss Alpine cheese makers use Lactobacillus Planterum or Staphylococcus xylosus based upon the flavor profile and rind development they are seeking.
Buttermilk, Probiotic Buttermilk and Sour CreamLactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (LL)

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (LC)

Lactococcus lactis subsp. biovar diacetylactis (LD)

Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris (LMC)

Probiotics*
*We have many strains of probiotics available as an adjunct culture.

Optimal Cheese pH Target Ranges

These pH targets may vary based upon many factors, but not limited to milk quality, fat, protein, incubation time, culture usage, temperature, enzymes, salt and aging time. These are general guidelines. We recommend for best results and cheese quality that pH be used as a guide in conjunction with time and temperature.

Cheese TypeGeneral Guidelines
Quality Clean Milk6.7 pH
Blue, Brie, Camembert, Bread Cheese, Limberger, Queso Fresco6.2 to 6.5 pH
 Brick and Ricotta5.8 to 6.0 pH
Gruyere, Alpine Style Cheeses, Swiss and Fresh Mozzarella5.5 to 5.7 pH. Fresh Mozzarella:  5.2 to 5.4 pH
Gouda, Aged Mozzarella, Parmesan, Asiago, Ricotta, Colby, Cheddar, Havarti 5.1 to 5.4 pH
Cream Cheese, Feta, Cottage Cheese4.6 to 4.9 pH
Buttermilk4.4 to 4.8 pH
Yogurt4.4 to 4.6 pH
Kefir4.2 to 4.6 pH
Manchego5.2  pH
Chevre4.6 to 4.7 pH
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